The Central figure of the French realist literature 50-70-ies of the XIX century was, of course, Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880). The early works of Flaubert developed in line with the “frantic romantic” – currents of late French romanticism spread in the 20-40-ies. In the second half of the 40-ies of Flaubert is moving away from the “violent romance” and takes the position of realism, but a realism of a different type Balzac. In September 1851, the writer began work on the novel “Madame Bovary” – a work that marks not only a new stage in his creative biography, but also a new stage in the development of French and European literature.
However, this does not mean that romanticism was completely finished. Everything was much more complicated: Flaubert goes to a different style of writing, developing an “objective method” (which was perceived in different variations by leading French writers of the second half of the XIX century – brothers E. and J. Goncourt, guy de Maupassant, Zola, etc.), but in the soul, in his perception of the world remains romantic. It is not difficult to notice that his objectivity hides indignations and hatred to the reality, and with what bitterness and contempt the writer depicts “life of color of a mold”, the temperament of romanticism is felt.
What Flaubert portrayed in “Madame Bovary”, did not cause him any sympathy or delight. On the contrary, the world of provincial petty bourgeoisie depicted in the work aroused the author’s deep disgust, to which he constantly complained in letters. The writer set himself the task “from the human rot”, from the “life of mold color” to create a work of art, to make interesting for readers an environment of provincial townsfolk, while abandoning the Arsenal of literary tools and forms used by its predecessors.
In the center of the novel is the image of Emma Bovary, to which converge the subject lines of the work, around which its ideological content is concentrated. The author puts his heroine in a special situation: Emma refers to the bourgeois world and at the same time opposes him. Inherent Flaubert images of characters in real life, without the conditional division into” positive “and” negative ” is here very clearly, excluding the unambiguous approach to the simple, at first glance, the image of the provincial petty bourgeoisie.
His heroine Flaubert did not pay any mind, no education, no good taste. In spiritual terms, it does not rise above the level of ordinary people. All what wants, what motivates, aspires to Emma, marked by banality, is an ironic smile.
The heroine was brought up in a boarding house at the monastery, where she read novels, in which “only conversations were that love, lovers, mistresses, persecuted ladies, smelt in secluded gazebos … dense forests, heartaches, vows, sobs, tears and kisses, boats at light, nightingales in groves, gentlemen, brave as lions, gentle as lambs, virtuous as anybody, always well dressed and tear as ballot boxes “. Under influence these novels exactly and yet coalesced circuits ideal Emma, the main components of which are love, Cavaliers, luster of “romantic” life. However, Flaubert gave his heroine emotional anxiety, desire for some other life, i.e. those traits that are most valued in a person. They not only distinguish Emma from the environment, but also contrast it with the Philistine environment. This is the main dramatic conflict of the work. Of course, Emma’s ideals, her dreams and aspirations are banal, even ridiculous, but the heroine puts her heart into them. She indeed suffers, in its own way protests against way of life provincial town – until his “ridiculous” death.
A special place in the novel “Madame Bovary” is a loan shark lere, who played an evil role in the fate of the main character. Loan shark belong to representative images of” human Comedy ” Balzac, so in the image of Lera clearly reveals the difference between flober from his predecessor. Lera less like Balzac’s “tigers” of the financial world, the same Gobsek, which combines miser and philosopher. Have Flaubert’s loan shark lere ordinary, the usual. It is a small predator, spider, quietly weaves a web in which inexperienced Emma Bovary gets entangled. Waiting for the right moment, he pounces on his victim and pushes her to suicide. The loan shark lere complements the picture of “life of the province” – without it it would not be so expressive.
G. Flaubert shocked readers and critics, saying: “Emma Bovary – it’s me” in a Parisian newspaper even appeared caricature depicting the writer, a man of almost two-meter height, with broad shoulders and a powerful mustache, in the frivolous ladies dress of his heroine. However, flober’s statement was not a joke and not a hoax. It was the recognition that, creating the image of Madame Bovary, he relied, in particular, and your psychological experience. The writer also experienced discord with the world, dissatisfaction with life, the desire of the other, that it does not exist, however, feeling it all on a much higher spiritual level.